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Itten learned to grasp the essentiality of objects, to express them in symbolism, etc. Published on Mar View Download 3.
InJohannes Itten founded his private design school in Berlin. As part of the research on the Bauhaus, I have clarified and publicized some papers on the contact point between the Itten-Schule and Japan. Shounan Mizukoshi and Yumeji TakehisaJapanese painters, gave lessons on the Japanese painting to Itten and his students at the Itten-Schule. We can find from the lecture texts of Yumeji that he tried to convey the spirituality of Japanese culture through Japanese traditional Art.
Especially, the way of thinking of Zen which had a great influence on Itten who was interested in Asian thought. Furthermore, educational contents of the Ittenshule and the work of Yamamuro, created at the Itten-Schule, were included in Kosei-Kyouiku-Taikei, a Japanese book of Art and Design Education published in It is well known that Itten had been interested in Asian Philosophies, such as Lao-tze, Buddhism since he was young.
In this oral presentation, I will talk about how Itten developed the spirit of Japanese painting and Zen in his education which he learned through Japanese painters. I will clarify what influence was given to Japan by the Japanese students who had studied at the Itten-Schule together with the activities of Eva Praut based on the historical facts of educational exchanges.
Through these, the relationship between Ittens design education and Japan will be reviewed comprehensively. Prospectus of the Itten-SchuleEducational Program The Itten-Schule was a school that provided basic art education for would-be painters, sculptors, architects, educators, photographers, advertising artists, designers of fashion and all sorts of designers. The aims of education at the Itten-Schule were to lead the creative ability in humans, to develop, and to teach methods in art education in accordance with the students special talents and abilities .
Walter Gropius participated in the architectural examinations at the Itten-Schule. Thus, the school had a close relation with the Bauhaus people . According to the prospectus of the Itten-Schule, the educational course was divided into basic education and specialized education.
The specialized education course included architecture, photography, advertisement, mode, textile, etc. A student would proceed to the specialized educational course after they finished the basic education course.
Elements of basic education included: This element was added to the basic education after Shounan MizukoshiJapanese artistvisited the Itten-Schule. Shounan Mizukoshi visited Berlin, accompanying Suiun Komuro who was dispatched from Japan for the exhibition. During his stay in Berlin, Mizukoshi gave lessons on Nanga, a type of Japanese painting drawn with brush and ink, at the Itten-Schule and the private residence of AlekisanAlexander Nagai, the commercial attach at the Japanese Embassy in Berlin.
Nagai favored the arts and used to paint a lot. He used to hold a weekly seminar with Japanese painters in order to introduce Japanese culture to the German people in Berlin.
It was also Nagai that translated the class text materials prepared by Yumeji Takehisa who will be mentioned later. Nagai played the role of tying Itten and the Japanese painters together. Kuniyoshi Obarathe founder of Tamagawa-Gakuen-school, who was staying in Berlin at the time on his observation trip of the European and American educational systems, watched Mizukoshi give Nanga lessons to Itten and students of the Itten-Schule.
Obara described the Mizukoshis lessons, stating, When he teaches how to paint lilies as such, he begins to talk about it starting from the lily roots.
According to Mizukoshi, the stem of a lily is not just a straight line but a gradual extension of the root. The very tip of a lily stem is curvy and the flower faces downward.
This is an expression of modesty. The lily is white and this symbolizes purity Unless one understands that the very life of a lily is in its modesty, he insists, one could not possibly paint lilies.
As described above, Mizukoshi taught his students to observe an object scientifically, to grasp the essence of the object and to draw what it symbolizes. Itten glued printed material including a photograph of Mizukoshis portrait and postcard of Mizukoshis exhibition works in his private diary. In his diary, Itten wrote that in Nanga one treated things symbolically . From Mizukoshi, Itten earnestly studied Nanga and learned to grasp the essentiality of objects and to express them in symbolism.
Mizukoshis teaching methods were similar to those of Yi Jing, a Japanese painter described in Georg Muches Blick punkt. It is highly likely that the two people may be the same individual . Brush Drawing according to the Chinese-Japanese Methods was added to the Itten-Schule practice because after receiving the Nanga lessons directly from Mizukoshi, Itten was convinced that Nanga was an important element that needed to be included in the basic education. How did Itten take it into his actual teaching practice?
Ina year after Mizukoshis lessons took place; two Japanese students from the Jiyu-Gakuen-school studied at the Itten-Schule and learned the Brush Drawing lessons from Itten.
The two attended the National Arts and Crafts School in Prague and gathered prospectuses of many arts and crafts schools in Germany such as those in Frankfurt, Munich, and Halle with the intention to study further.
They were most interested in the Bauhaus and the schools in Berlin. On March 20,they made a trip to visit to the Bauhaus and the Yamawakis. However, because the Bauhaus education required a long schooling time and because the Dessau Bauhaus School was suffering from problems and was soon closing down, they took the advice of Mr.
Yamawaki and decided to study at the Itten-Schule instead . During their study abroad, they visited Bauhaus three times. On one occasion, Kurt Kranz escorted them to show the Bauhaus. In Berlin, the Yamawakis gave Yamamuro and Sasagawa a guided tour of the Siedlung a modern apartment building in company with Motoko Hani, the founder of Jiyu-Gakuen-school, and her daughter, Keiko. Before returning to Japan, Sasagawa bought a book recommended by Itten.
Johannes Itten – L’Art de la
This book was later displayed at the Jiyu-Gakuen Exhibition. Sasagawa taught art using this book at Jiyu-Gakuen-school. Ittens educational methods were passed on to the Jiyu-Gakuen-school after Yamamuro and Sasagawa returned to Japan. As they were thoroughly relaxed, a minute free drawing with Sumi-ink and brush followed . They said that Ittens teaching was unique in a sense that it reflected east-west philosophies and spirituality.
It emphasized deep breathing as an important measure to unify mvezete feelings . In order to develop our emotions, we sometimes practiced on the sensations given by one blade of grass or one flower only.
We cannot give life to a leaf just by drawing it after viewing it with our eyes.
Johannes Itten – L’Art de la Couleur.pdf
The drawing should contain the dynamism of the personality of the person who draws it. For this reason, practicing Nanga will become an important study . Their statements showed clearly how Itten emphasized the importance of Nanga. I also clarified the fact that Itten considered it important that the students practice drawing with ink and brush to prepare themselves mentally and spiritually for the daily assignment. Renshichiro Kawakita and Katsuo Takei was published.
This book described art education at the Bauhaus in detail, based on the reports of the students, Yamawakis and Mizutani who studied at the Bauhaus.
This book became a Bible for those who wanted to learn of the Bauhaus education and the basis of design education in Japan thereafter. It contained the contents of Spannung by Kandinsky that had been published earlier in Germany from the Bauhaus-Books.
It also contained illustration excerpts from a special article on the Itten-Schule in Die Form in and the details of Ittens teaching methods, such as the contrast of Light and Dark . It was not clear who introduced Ittens teaching methods described in this book. Inhowever, I clarified the following ideas in my treatise. They included that the said book contained Yamamuros work that had been created at the Itten-Schule.
Upon their return to Japan, Yamamuro and Sasagawa gave a detailed presentation of the report on Ittens educational methods at a seminar given by Renshichiro Kawakita, the author of the book. The book contained their report on Ittens educational methods. The photographs of Yamamuro and Sasagawa were included in the book .
After their return to Japan, Yamamuro and Sasagawa conveyed the Itten methods not only to the Jiyu-Gakuen-school but also to leaders of the Japanese constructive art education movement. Thus, Yamamuro and Sasagawa contributed to the Japanese constructive art education, which became the basis of design education in Japan. Yumeji Takehisas influence on Itten and the students at the Itten-Schule From toan artist named Yumeji Takehisa went to observe the art movements in America and Europe.
Itten wrote a letter to Sasagawa and Yamamuro on February 5, In the letter, he requested, I have a favor to ask the both of you. Would you send me select good brushes? It is assumed that Itten needed good brushes for Japanese painting lessons. Yumeji prepared the texts for his classes. The gist of his texts are as follows: Various line effects; contrasting lines; lines representing emotions; lines clarifying internal impulses; comparing Japanese and western art; effects of a blank space; the Japanese idea of beauty and relationship of Japanese painting, who dislike repetition and desire for something never to be found elsewhere; for example, tea ceremonies and Haiku-poetry, hanging scrolls.
FANTASY (COLORS ) sznek – [PDF Document]
Yumeji tried to teach the Japanese art in lectures in which he included discussing the culture and spirituality of Japan in addition to practical painting lessons.
Itten jobannes not only the technical aspects of the Japanese art but also the deep spirituality that lay in Japan and Asia.
Itten wrote an article, Ostasiatische Tuschmalerei, in the exhibition book. In it, Itten touched on Yumeji, and quoted from Yumejis texts of his Japanese painting lessons about different kinds of lines that expressed different kinds of emotions. Concerning the text, Itten later stated in Mein Vorkurs am Bauhaus, One of the most important principles of the Chinese painting sznej ink is: Heart and hand must be One. Itten may have learned this mvszefe from Yumeji.
Ruth and Eva respectively wrote letters dated July 14,and sent to them. In a book, Johannes Itten Werk und Schriftenedited by Willy Rotzler, there is a mention hohannes Hans Kayser had a personal contact with Ltten in ,and his two daughters visited the Itten-Schule. Therefore, it can be assumed that these two girls were Ruth Kayser and Eva Kayser, the friends of Sasagawa and Yamamuro described above.
Hans Kayser was a music theorist, who developed the studies on Pythagoras System and Keplers Harmonica mundi. Eva Kayser sent Sasagawa and Yamamuro the photographs taken of Eva and her father in Switzerland with the letters described above. Returning to the topic on Yumeji, Ruth Kayser wrote in her letter dated July 14,saying, We kvszete had a Japanese instructor teaching us for the last two months.
His lessons were very good. We learned a lot from him.