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Spieki proszków Cu i Fe –materiały cierne na nakładki hamulców i tarcz sprzęgieł ciernych; Spieki z proszków metalu Al2O3 oraz węglików i. Many translated example sentences containing “a piece of chalk” – Polish- English dictionary and search engine for Polish translations. Ceramika porowata. FILTECH Exhibitors serving this industry: 3P INSTRUMENTS GmbH & Co. KG. Germany. P ExtreMem Inc. Taiwan. T7. Fraunhofer.

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Noakowskiego 3, Warszawa. The presence of this interlayer between ceramic and metallic phases, which is formed at high temperature leads to the composite exhibiting mechanical strength higher than that of both metal and ceramic material.

Closing a flammable polymer in the porous structure of the ceramic material additionally can reduce ignition and flame susceptibility of the polymer. The protein fibers add elasticity and high tensile strength, enabling bone to withstand tension forces.

However, it is possible to use special monomers exhibiting low shrinkage or even the volume expansion during polymerization, which can result in an additional strengthen of the composite. It is known that mechanical strength, poorwata compressive and tensile strengths of some human as well as animal bones is unexpectedly high.


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The heat treatment of bones at temperature, at which the organic material is decomposed and removed, leads to the porous ceramic material, mainly consisting of hydroxyapatite, and additionally indicating the porosity gradient. The hard mineral crystals provide great compressive strength, making bone an excellent load-bearing material. It was shown that the mechanical properties of resulting composites depend on a kind of monomer and reactive resin used as an organic material Table 1.

In this paper, preliminary results of studies of ceramic-metal and ceramic-polymer composites obtained via infiltration of porous ceramic matrix are reported. Thus, human and animal bones are examples of ceramic-polymer composites, in which the intercellular matrix of bone is bonded with the natural polymer – fibrous proteins of molecular weight up to several million.

This type of composites amalgamates properties of both materials: The bones are natural inorganic-organic composites. Porowata ceramika infiltrowana metalami i polimerami. The problem of the composite preparation is the residual open porosity due to polymerization shrinkage which is immanent for polymerization process as well as crosslinking of reactive resins Fig.


Ceramic-metal composites based on porous ceramic material are usually obtained employing the method in which melted metal at high temperature is infiltrated into open pores of ceramic under pressure lower than 50 MPa.

Ceramic-polymer composites mimicking bones were prepared via introducing of monomer or reactive resin into pores of porous ceramic material and subsequent the monomer polymerization ;orowata resin curing. Porous ceramic infiltrated by metals and polymers. These two components are intimately bound, with the mineral crystals wrapped around and embedded among the protein.

It is especially true for the ceramics-polymer composites, characterized by porosity gradient.