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1 Introduction to the Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia. This chapter provides a short introduction to the topic of the book. I define. 7 Host Range of Daphnia Parasites. In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. I outline the ecological. 5 The Effects of Daphnia Parasites on Host Fitness. Parasites use their hosts to foster their own needs, thus interfering with the hosts’ survival and reproduction.

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Vertical transmission occurs when a parent conveys an infection to its unborn offspring, as in HIV in humans. Although I do not believe that these confounding factors are highly critical when demonstrating some negative effect of parasites on host fecundity, they certainly interfere with testing the effects of the parasites on survival see Chapter 3 Some Parasites of Daphnia.

Ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of parasitism in Daphnia by Dieter Ebert

For more information, see the Bookshelf Copyright Notice. Arch Hydrobiol Evidence from a cross-inoculation experiment. Parasites may also influence other host fitness components, such as predator escape, body size, and sex allocation.

This harm may not parasitisk directly visible, but there are certainly increased costs for swimming, which may have consequences for other fitness Fitness: The finding of parasite local adaptation Local adaptation: Chapman and Hall ; Gandon Gandon S Local adaptation and the geometry of host-parasite coevolution. A central chapter of this book is “Epidemiology.

In particular, their reaction to chemical cues released by predators Predator: Changes in the population size through time.

The strength of Green’s review is that it is a comprehensive account of what was known about parasites and epibionts of Cladocerans at the time. A Glossary provides definitions of terms from Daphnia biology and parasitology used throughout the book. For example, Caullerya mesnili is able to infect D.

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Experiments are suggested at the individual level as well as at the population level.

Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia

It is important to note that although this pattern is found when averaging across several host—parasite combinations, occasionally a host in a ecolohy combination is much more affected by the new parasites than expected Ebert b Ebert D Virulence and local adaptation of a horizontally transmitted parasite.

In contrast to typical predators Predator: Morbidity and mortality of parasitis host that is caused by parasites and pathogens. In contrast to the food study in D. Changes in raphnia frequencies over time.

Behavior by which the zooplankton maintains a particular vertical distribution in relation to the stratification of the water light, temperature, food, predation pressure.

Occasional reports of “nonsignificant” effects of parasites have to be considered in the light of low statistical power or large environmental noise.

The ecology of members of the genus Daphnia has possibly been more closely investigated than any other taxon. Organism that lives attached to the body surface of another organism.

Further information about the evolution Evolution: The authors emphasize that this effect weakens parasite-mediated selection Selection: The reason for this epiedmiology is evolutio not clear. Following this introduction, Chapter 2 Introduction to Daphnia Biology gives a general summary of Daphnia biology, highlighting at the same time those aspects that may be relevant for the study of parasitism.

Their experiments revealed no significant interactions between parasite and kairomon-induced life history changes. Contents Expand All Collapse All.

This conceptual definition of a parasite includes members of various taxa, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, but also includes functional categories not taxonomically definedsuch as pathogens Pathogen: Ectoparasites live on the surface of the host. Defense reaction of prey triggered by the presence or action of a predator so as to reduce the expected damage of the predator.

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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The second part will deal with the taxonomy and natural history of all parasites known to Daphnia. See also cyclic parthenogenesis. They concluded that this is because the host’s adaptive response against fish predators changes life history traits expressed early during the host’s life, whereas the parasite affects its host during later stages. It seems likely to me that many currently described parasite species will turn out to be a group of species.

Chapters 8 Epidemiology and 9 Population Dynamics and Community Ecology address aspects of parasitism at the population Population: These simple experiments may be used to illustrate principles of host—parasite interactions. The strength of this effect was shown to depend both on host clone and parasite isolate, with local parasite isolates having the strongest effect. To my knowledge, every attempt to test for genetic variation Genetic variation: Very high doses may even harm the host so much that the parasite is not able to complete its development before the host dies Ebert et al.

Certainly, parasites possess features that make them very attractive as explanatory factors in the evolution and ecology of their hosts.

Print view The Book: They found that the negative effect of P. More precise terms are distribution, prevalence, and density.

It has been speculated that this specific pathology is adaptive for P.

Order of the Entomostraca. This bacterium first castrates its host around 10 days after infection but then allows it to live for many more days over 40 days after infection.