Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .
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For downstream data transmissions to a wireless destination node, the OLT selects a gateway such that data packets travel on the minimum delay path across the EPON and wireless mesh front-end. Each RN consists of a protection unit and a bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer opportnuities on a multilayer dielectric interference filter. A channel assignment scheme that balances traffic loads among wireless channels to minimize contention was investigated in [ 50 ].
Fiber-wireless FiWi access networks: View at Scopus T.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities
Figure 5 illustrates the historical recurrence of recessions as turning points, where roughly every 50 years the installation period of new technologies, the time when financial capital shapes the economy, has led each time to a major bubble followed by a major crash.
Subsequently, for each pair of router and gateway a single or alternatively for load balancing minimum-weight path s is are computed.
UrbanGustavo C. It is important to note that there is a difference between OWI and free-space optical wireless OW communications.
In other words, when all the traffic goes to the Internet, the throughput of FiWi networks is the same as that of traditional WMNs. Instead of overprovisioning based on the peak traffic demand, it is desirable to reallocate bandwidth among multiple PONs by utilizing tunable transceivers at the ONUs. More specifically, the OLT networkz equipped with an array of fixed-tuned transmitters and an array of fixed-tuned receivers, each operating on a different dedicated wavelength channel, for transmitting and receiving data to and from the ONUs.
Similarly, to alleviate the bandwidth bottleneck of wireless mesh front-end networks, future FiWi access networks are expected to be based on next-generation IEEE We discuss the different threads of FiWi access networking research and the rationale behind their different design objectives. Recently, a number of major telecommunication service providers such as KT and Telecom Italia have started to move into the energy market.
OWI aims at integrating PONs and other optical fiber access technologies with broadband wireless access technologies, for example, WiMAX, in order to increase the capacity of wireless access networks and reduce access point complexity through centralized management [ 12 ].
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities – Semantic Scholar
While significant progress has been made at the PHY layer of FiWi and in particular RoF transmission systems, FiWi networking research on layer-2 and fiber-wierless related issues has begun only recently. To challrnges the network throughput gain in FiWi networks, a linear programming based routing algorithm was proposed in [ 43 ]. It has been receiving an increasing amount of attention by other key players, for example, the Government of China most recently. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains their role in emerging FiWi networks.
The proposed channel assignment scheme performs load balancing of traffic flows across different channels in order to maintain a similar level of contention on each channel.
Unlike DARA, each mesh router maintains a risk list to keep track of failures. Arguing that due to its unique properties optical fiber is likely to entirely replace copper wires in the near-to midterm, fjwi will elaborate on the final frontier of optical networks, namely, the convergence with their wireless counterparts.
Advances in Optics
The wireless mesh front-end of FiWi access networks provides multiple paths to route traffic coming from and going to the optical backhaul. Upon reception of a new service request, the access gateway fiber-wreless the transmission and propagation delays by taking the wireless network conditions and traffic profile into account.
To reduce the overhead of slow transceiver tuning times during reconfiguration and increase network throughput, the buffer size may be increased and a higher threshold for the reconfiguration trigger may be set, at the expense of longer queueing delays in the buffer.
The reported results show that E-MPCP and IOW-AC are superior to jetworks separated resource management scheme in terms of channel utilization and dropping probability for both best-effort and real-time traffic.
When traffic increases and the utilization of the established lightpaths is low, the load on the existing lightpaths is increased by means of load balancing. View at Google Scholar P. Otherwise, the service request is rejected. This not only provides more time for professional and personal activities for corporate and our own personal benefit but also helps reduce fuel consumption and protect the environment; issues that are becoming increasingly important in our lives.
Specifically, the path to a gateway will be selected based on its computed delay, whereas the path to an external buffer is chosen by taking both the delay and size of the external buffer into account. Wireless access networks, on the other hand, potentially go almost everywhere but provide a highly bandwidth-constrained transmission channel susceptible to a variety of impairments.
The future Energy Internet aims at not only addressing the reliability issues of current power grids but also offering several additional major benefits. Each CN contains a protection unit. The integration of solar-powered wireless sensors and low-power fiber optic sensors into a PON was experimentally demonstrated in [ 84 ]. Note, however, that FMC does not necessarily imply the physical convergence of networks.
Navid Ghazisaidi, PhD – Google Scholar Citations
The capacity of wireless mesh networks is limited. The power utilities are responsible for the installation of the network infrastructure as well as its operation and maintenance but leave its access open to all e. Figure 1 a shows the fixed wired and wireless access technologies used by broadband subscribers in The CaDAR routing algorithm, originally intended only for the wireless front-end as explained above, can be extended to perform integrated path computation across both the wireless and optical domains of FiWi access networks.
For a given initial ONU distribution, this heuristic perturbs one of the high-cost ONUs to achieve a cost improvement in terms of average Euclidean distance between ONUs and wireless end-users.