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Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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For it can be said to them: I mean the rhetorical, dialectical and demonstrative indications. And logic must be learned from the ancient masters, regardless of the fact that they were not Muslims. Thus the doctrines about the world are not so very far apart from each other that some of them should be called irreligious and others not. This difficulty is confirmed by what appears in the case of man: The apparent contradictions are meant to stimulate the learned to deeper study.

In memory of my father

In addition to all this, in the methods which they followed to establish their interpretations they neither went along with the masses nor with al-maqql elite: We intend to make a study of its teachings at the apparent level, and thus kiab to remedy the grievous harm done by ignorant partisans of philosophy and religion.

Language English 50 Arabic 34 Undetermined 2. Thus people in relation to Scripture fall into three classes: For the first believers arrived at perfect virtue and fear of God only by using these sayings [of Scripture] without interpreting them kitabb and anyone of them who did find out an allegorical interpretation did not think fit to express it [to others]. This is very apparent from [a comparison of] the condition of the first believers with the condition of those who came after them. Such texts must be interpreted allegorically by everyone.

Therefore it seems that corporeal symbolization provides a stronger stimulus to [the goals of] the life beyond fask spiritual; the spiritual [kind] is more acceptable to the class of debating theologians, but they are the minority.

Ibn Rushd: Fasl al-maqal (Arabic Books: alkutub – مكتبة الكتب العربية)

Anyone of the interpretative class who discloses such [an interpretation] to him is summoning him to unbelief, and he al-naqal summons to unbelief is an unbeliever. It is apparent from what he said on the subject that his calling them both unbelievers on these fqsl was not definite, since he made it clear in The book of the distinction that calling people unbelievers for violating unanimity can only be tentative.


This is no more heretical in the one case than in the other. Your Web browser is not enabled for JavaScript. So we affirm definitely that whenever the conclusion of a demonstration is in conflict with the apparent meaning of Scripture, that apparent meaning admits of allegorical interpretation according to the al-amqal for such interpretation in Arabic.

But anyone who is not a man of learning is obliged to take these passages in their apparent meaning, and allegorical interpretation of them is for him unbelief because it le a ds to unbelief.

But by expressing those false beliefs to the masses they have been a cause of perdition to the masses and themselves, in this world and the next. Al-maaqal when the question arises one considers which of these four [last named modes of] existence is more persuasive to the class of persons who find it impossible [to believe] that what is al-mzqal by it is essential existence, i.

In memory of my father. They are exclusively the methods set down in the precious Book. This book was concluded in the year That is why we hold that, for anyone whose duty it is zl-maqal believe in the apparent meaning, allegorical interpretation is unbelief, because it leads to unbelief.

For this reason we find the people of Islam divided into three sects with regard to the understanding of the symbolization which is used in [the texts of] our religion referring to the states of the future life.

And the should accept from them gladly and gratefully whatever in these books accords with the truth, and al-mqal attention to and warn against what does not accord with the truth, at the same time excusing them. Omitted are the Introduction and Notes and now diacritical marks.

The popular portions of the Book are miraculous in providing for the needs of every class of mind. That suspicion is idle; therefore in such a case that suspicion ought to be discredited and it [the text] ak-maqal not be made an object of allegorical interpretation, as has happened in so many contexts as I have shown you in this book at the hands of the theologians, i. Printed for the Trustees of the “E.

But if other bodies are supposed, this state of affairs does not follow as a consequence. Indeed this comparison is certain, kltab poetic as one might suppose. Printed for the trustees of the “E. The fourth [class] occurs where the premisses are based on accepted ideas or opinions, without being accidentally certain, and where the conclusions are symbols for what it was intended to conclude.

Formats and Editions of Kitāb fasl al-maqāl []

We say that the ideas found in Scripture fall into five classes. The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e. Such, then, is the formulation of this problem in its strongest possible form, as we have explained it to you in conversation. So since it does return to it, we know that this cessation does not happen to it through anything which attaches to it in its substantial nature, but is only something which attaches to it owing to a cessation of its organ; and [we know] that it does not follow that if the organ ceases the soul must cease.


Now they all agree on the presence of these three characters in the world. Dialectical and rhetorical arguments are prevalent because the main aim of Scripture is to teach the majority. The imams of the Muslims ought to forbid those of his books which contain learned matter to all save the learned, just as they ought to forbid demonstrative books to those who are not capable of understanding them.

Thus it is clear that [3] this last being bears a resemblance both to [1] the being which is really generated a nd to [2] the pre-eternal Being. This manner of interpretation, if it is employed in these contexts and in this way, is authorized by Scripture; but if it is employed in other contexts, it is an error. I AM grateful to the International Commission for the Translation of Great Works and the Trustees of the Gibb Memorial Fund for sponsoring the publication of this book, and to the Graduate School of the University of Michigan for financial assistance towards research.

A nd if someone errs or stumbles in the study of these books owing to a deficiency in his natural capacity, or bad organization of his study of them, or being dominated by his passions, or not finding a teacher to guide him to an understanding of their contents, or a combination of all or more than one of these causes, 48 it does not follow that one should forbid them to anyone who is qualified to study them.

A s for the man who expresses these allegories to fqsl persons, he is an unbeliever on account of his summoning people to unbelief. Indeed these allegorical interpretations always receive confirmation from the apparent meaning of other passages of Scripture. It seems that those who disagree on the interpretation of these difficult questions earn merit if they are in the right and will be excused [by God] al-mawal they are in error. I have been fortunate in having the translation carefully read and criticized by R.